Polycystic Kidney Disease is one of the most prevalent genetic disorders. PKD affects about 500,000 people in the United States. ADPKD (Autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease) affects 1 in every 400 to 1,000 people globally, and ARPKD (Autosomal recessive polycystic kidney disease) affects 1 in 20,000 children.

Polycystic kidney disease is an inherited disorder when clusters of fluid-filled sacs form in the kidneys. These sacs cause the kidneys to enlarge and can lead to kidney failure. In addition, in some cases, there is a risk that the kidneys may be damaged by infection, and in rare cases, cysts can rupture, causing the patient to experience excruciating pain. However, this condition can be treated without any pain or side effects in SRIAAS Kidney Hospital with the help of the best kidney doctors in Delhi. 

There are two types of polycystic kidney disease. One is (Autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease) ADPKD, and the other is (Autosomal recessive polycystic kidney disease) ARPKD. ADPKD is a disease in which one of the parents is a patient of polycystic kidney disease. In Autosomal Dominant PKD, the cysts are only formed in the kidneys. ARPKD is a disease in which both the parents are normal, but they carry a faulty gene with themselves. When the defective genes come into the child, it becomes the patient of polycystic kidney disease. In Autosomal Recessive PKD, the cysts are formed in the kidneys and the liver.

Polycystic Kidney disease is a genetic disorder in which cysts are formed within the kidney, causing downward pressure on the tissues of the kidney, which are responsible for the filtration of waste materials from the blood into the urine. As the cysts increase in size, the pressure also increases, and so the kidney loses its power to filter the blood from wastes like urea and creatinine. The cysts are made up of fluid and are non-cancerous. 

What are the causes of both types of Polycystic Kidney Disease?

Polycystic Kidney disease is caused by abnormal genes, which means an inherited disorder. It is not only caused when one or both of the parents are a patient of PKD but it can also be caused by a genetic mutation that occurs on its own. 

Autosomal Dominant Polycystic Kidney Disease

If only one parent is a patient of polycystic kidney disease, it is enough to pass on to the children. Each child has a 50% chance of developing ADPKD if the parent has it. The symptoms of this type of Polycystic Kidney Disease start to develop between 30 to 40 years.

 

Autosomal Recessive Polycystic Kidney Disease

If both parents have abnormal genes, then only this kind of disease will pass on. However, if both parents carry a gene, each child has a 25% chance of developing ARPKD. The signs and symptoms of this kind of Polycystic Kidney Disease often develop shortly after birth. However, sometimes they don’t appear until later in childhood or during adolescence.

How will you know if you are a patient of Polycystic Kidney Disease?

If a person is suffering from polycystic kidney disease, it may not be diagnosed early. People develop their symptoms when they are above 30 to 40 years of age. When the size of the kidney increases, it possesses pressures over the kidney, hence causing damage to the filtration power of the kidney. As the filtration power of the kidney goes down, waste material like urea and creatinine starts accumulating in the body, which causes the symptoms in the body.

  • Increase in the size of the abdomen
  • Weakness
  • Frothy urine
  • Blood in the urine
  • High Blood pressure
  • Kidney or bladder infections
  • Pounding or Fluttering on the chest, a floppy valve in the chest
  • Anemia
  • Muscle cramps

How is polycystic kidney disease diagnosed and treated by the doctors in SRIAAS Kidney Hospital?

Diagnosis of Polycystic can be done by a simple ultrasound. If the size of the kidney is enlarged, it contains a large number of cysts. It indicates that you are a patient of polycystic kidney disease. This can also be diagnosed by CT scan and MRI. 

The cysts are made up of fluids. So the first and foremost thing to do is to increase the drainage of the fluids so that the size of the kidney can be reduced. When the pressure is decreased, it helps the kidney to regain its functionalities and work effectively. The level of creatinine and urea goes down with an increase in kidney function. 

By managing the pressure which is causing damage to the kidney and by controlling the size of the cyst and the filtration power of the kidney, this problem can be reduced so that the kidney may work effectively.

The kidney has the unique feature of increasing its functions as per the need of the body. Let’s take an example to understand this distinctive function of the kidney. For example, one person donates his kidney to another person, so out of two kidneys, only one is left. However, the level of creatinine and urea does not increase because of the ability of the kidney to improve its functions. It does the work of the other kidney as well.

How the formation of cysts affects the functioning of the kidneys?

The standard size of the kidney is 10 cm, but in polycystic kidney disease, the kidney’s size changes, and multiple cysts form over the kidney, and the size of the kidney grows up to 25 cm. 

Polycystic kidney disease can be genetic, which means that one of the parents can pass on the defective gene.

 

When cysts form on the outer membrane of the kidney, it creates pressure. The condition leads to an increase in creatinine and urea levels.

 

Polycystic Kidney Disease Treatment states that numerous balloon-like cysts can be found in either of the kidneys. Sometimes, the size of the cyst can be so tiny that it can be challenging to see the cyst with the naked eye. In addition, there is pressure on the functioning parts of the kidney due to the growing cyst, and high blood pressure occurs.

 

Complications in polycystic disease.

 

High blood pressure

An increased blood pressure level is one of the common causes of polycystic kidney disease; untreated high blood pressure can lead to further problems such as an increased risk of heart disease and stroke.

 

Loss of kidney function

When cysts form on the kidney, it puts some pressure on the kidney, affecting its functioning. And the kidneys begin to lose the ability of the blood to filter through waste material such as creatinine and urea. Elevated levels of creatinine and urea indicate decreased kidney function and can also lead to kidney failure.

 

How to diagnose Polycystic kidney disease:

Step 1: Decrease the size of cysts.

Step 2: Increase kidney function.

 

The imaging tests used to detect PKD are-

To detect PKD, Nephrologists may use imaging tests to look for cysts in the kidney, liver, and other organs. 

Ultrasound- This test is done to look for kidney or liver cysts.

CT scan- Through this test, small cysts in the kidney can be seen and checked.

MRI- This test is done to check the structure of the kidney and cysts.

GFR blood test- Through this test, the specialist checks whether the patient’s kidney function is correct or not.

In SRIAAS, the patient is advised to go for KFRT (Kidney Function Restoration Treatment) to restore the functioning of the kidney.

The basis of KFRT treatment is:

  • Find the reason
  • Restore kidney function

A patient is advised to do two tests, one before starting the treatment and the other after one month, as the noticeable results are visible within a month.

 

The primary objective of the doctor should be to decrease the size of the cyst in the patient. Therefore, doctors in SRIAAS Kidney Hospital ensure that they prescribe such Ayurveda medicines and remedies to the patients that will reduce the size of the cyst to overcome the entire problem. Ayurvedic medicines are the best to treat polycystic kidney disease. They are prepared by diluting natural substances like minerals, plants, and animals to make them too weak to cause any harm or any side effects in the patient’s body.

So the natural Ayurvedic medicines will increase the functioning of the kidney, which will increase the power of the kidney to filter the blood and take out the toxic waste material from the blood. The best Kidney clinic in Delhi, i.e., SRIAAS Kidney Hospital, also provides customized diet charts as per the causes and symptoms of the patients. In simple language, the Doctors in SRIAAS Kidney hospital provide Customized diet charts, the best Ayurvedic medicines, and exercises to treat Polycystic Kidney disease by the drainage of fluid from non-cancerous cysts on the kidneys and the liver.

 

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Dr. Puru Dhawan B.A.M.S (University of Delhi)

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