Polycystic Kidney Disease

Polycystic kidney disease (PKD) is a hereditary illness that develops inside the kidneys. In general, it is classified as a fluid-filled cyst (bubbles). Polycystic kidney disease is a significant cause of renal disease and can lead to kidney failure.

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What is Polycystic Kidney Disease?

People with PKD may develop cysts in other regions of their bodies, such as "the liver," and experience additional difficulties. Because it is a hazardous illness that can cause major kidney damage if not addressed quickly.

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Complications & Symptoms of Polycystic kidney disease

Polycystic disease is a natural illness that most people dismiss. Another key factor is because many are unaware of the signs of PKD, which shares symptoms with other disorders. However, people must understand that a simple test can determine whether or not cysts are present inside your kidneys. Later in this post, we will address the proper therapy and diagnostic methods, but first, we will look at the following PKD symptoms.

  • Pain or tenderness in the abdomen
  • Blood in the urine
  • Frequent urination
  • Pain in the sides
  • Urinary tract infection (UTI)
  • Kidney stones
  • Pain or heaviness in the back
  • Skin that bruises easily
  • Pale skin color
  • Fatigue
  • Joint pain
  • Nail abnormalities
Causes of Polycystic kidney disease

It is an inherited condition, as stated before in the introduction. As a result, most people, particularly children, inherit this disease from their parents. In rare circumstances, children develop this condition due to "gene mutation" without the involvement of their parents.

PKD is classified into three categories.

Autosomal dominant PKD

Adult PKD is another name for it. According to the National Kidney Foundation, ADPKD is detected in about 90% of instances. It is also known as an inherited disorder, and if a parent has PKD, the inherited individual has a 50% chance of having the ailment.

Autosomal recessive PKD

This condition is similar to ADPKD, however it is less frequent. Both parents must have the gene for this condition to arise. It is less prevalent because there is a 50-50 probability; if ARPKD carriers have the gene from only one parent, the disease will not manifest in the body.

Types of ARPKD:

  • Perinatal form: Attainable after birth.
  • Neonatal: Found in the first month of life.
  • Infantile form: This occurs when the infant is between the ages of three and twelve months.
  • Juvenile form: Appears after the child reaches the age of one year.

Acquired cystic kidney disease

ACKD, or Acquired cystic kidney disease, develops later in life in persons who have renal failure or are on dialysis. Furthermore, because ACKD is an acquired illness, carriers do not inherit it from their parents.

Diagnosis and treatment

In the case of ADPKD and ARPKD, your doctor will inquire about your family history and previous disorders. Following that, blood tests will be done to look for signs of illness, germs, or protein in the urine.

To diagnose PKD, the following imaging studies are used:

  • Abdominal Ultrasonography: This non-invasive scan uses sound waves to look for cysts in your kidneys.
  • Abdominal CT scan: This approach can detect smaller kidney cysts.
  • MRI scan of the abdomen: An MRI scans your body using powerful magnets to display the form of your kidneys and search for cysts.
  • Intravenous Pyelogram: A dye is used during this test to make your blood arteries appear more clearly on an X-ray.